18 USC CHAPTER 13 – CIVIL RIGHTS

CITE-    18 USC CHAPTER 13 – CIVIL RIGHTS                            01/03/2012 (112-90) –

EXPCITE-    TITLE 18 – CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE    PART I – CRIMES

CHAPTER 13 – CIVIL RIGHTS -HEAD-

CHAPTER 13 – CIVIL RIGHTS                      -MISC1-    Sec.

241.        Conspiracy against rights.

242.        Deprivation of rights under color of law.

243.        Exclusion of jurors on account of race or color.

244.        Discrimination against person wearing uniform of armed                 forces.

245.        Federally protected activities.

246.        Deprivation of relief benefits.

247.        Damage to religious property; obstruction of persons                 in the free exercise of religious beliefs.

248.        Freedom of access to clinic entrances.

249.        Hate crime acts.

AMENDMENTS

2009 – Pub. L. 111-84, div. E, Sec. 4707(b), Oct. 28, 2009, 123    Stat. 2841, added item 249.

1994 – Pub. L. 103-322, title XXXIII, Sec. 330023(a)(1), Sept.    13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2150, substituted “Freedom of access to clinic    entrances” for “Blocking access to reproductive health services” in    item 248.      Pub. L. 103-259, Sec. 4, May 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 697, added item    248.

1988 – Pub. L. 100-690, title VII, Sec. 7018(b)(2), Nov. 18,    1988, 102 Stat. 4396, struck out “of citizens” after “rights” in    item 241.      Pub. L. 100-346, Sec. 3, June 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 645, added item    247.

1976 – Pub. L. 94-453, Sec. 4(b), Oct. 2, 1976, 90 Stat. 1517,    added item 246.      1968 – Pub. L. 90-284, title I, Sec. 102, Apr. 11, 1968, 82 Stat.    75, added item 245. -End-   -CITE-

18 USC Sec. 241                                             01/03/2012 (112-90) –

EXPCITE-    TITLE 18 – CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE    PART I – CRIMES

CHAPTER 13 – CIVIL RIGHTS -HEAD-    Sec. 241. Conspiracy against rights -STATUTE-      If two or more persons conspire to injure, oppress, threaten, or    intimidate any person in any State, Territory, Commonwealth,    Possession, or District in the free exercise or enjoyment of any    right or privilege secured to him by the Constitution or laws of    the United States, or because of his having so exercised the same; or If two or more persons go in disguise on the highway, or on the    premises of another, with intent to prevent or hinder his free exercise or enjoyment of any right or privilege so secured – They shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both; and if death results from the acts committed in    violation of this section or if such acts include kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse or an attempt to commit aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill, they shall be fined under this title or imprisoned for any term of years or for life,    or both, or may be sentenced to death. -SOURCE-    (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 696; Pub. L. 90-284, title I,    Sec. 103(a), Apr. 11, 1968, 82 Stat. 75; Pub. L. 100-690, title    VII, Sec. 7018(a), (b)(1), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4396; Pub. L.    103-322, title VI, Sec. 60006(a), title XXXII, Secs. 320103(a),    320201(a), title XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(L), Sept. 13, 1994, 108    Stat. 1970, 2109, 2113, 2147; Pub. L. 104-294, title VI, Secs.    604(b)(14)(A), 607(a), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3507, 3511.)  -MISC1-                       HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES                         Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 51 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.    321, Sec. 19, 35 Stat. 1092).      Clause making conspirator ineligible to hold office was omitted    as incongruous because it attaches ineligibility to hold office to    a person who may be a private citizen and who was convicted of    conspiracy to violate a specific statute. There seems to be no    reason for imposing such a penalty in the case of one individual    crime, in view of the fact that other crimes do not carry such a    severe consequence. The experience of the Department of Justice is    that this unusual penalty has been an obstacle to successful    prosecutions for violations of the act.      Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.      Minor changes in phraseology were made.                                 AMENDMENTS                                  1996 – Pub. L. 104-294, Sec. 607(a), substituted “any State,    Territory, Commonwealth, Possession, or District” for “any State,    Territory, or District” in first par.      Pub. L. 104-294, Sec. 604(b)(14)(A), repealed Pub. L. 103-322,    Sec. 320103(a)(1). See 1994 Amendment note below.      1994 – Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330016(1)(L), substituted “They    shall be fined under this title” for “They shall be fined not more    than $10,000″ in third par.      Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 320201(a), substituted “person in any    State” for “inhabitant of any State” in first par.      Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 320103(a)(2)-(4), in third par.,    substituted “results from the acts committed in violation of this    section or if such acts include kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap,    aggravated sexual abuse or an attempt to commit aggravated sexual    abuse, or an attempt to kill, they shall be fined under this title    or imprisoned for any term of years or for life, or both” for    “results, they shall be subject to imprisonment for any term of    years or for life”.      Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 320103(a)(1), which provided for amendment    identical to Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330016(1)(L), above, was    repealed by Pub. L. 104-294, Sec. 604(b)(14)(A).      Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 60006(a), substituted “, or may be    sentenced to death.” for period at end of third par.      1988 – Pub. L. 100-690 struck out “of citizens” after “rights” in    section catchline and substituted “inhabitant of any State,    Territory, or District” for “citizen” in text.      1968 – Pub. L. 90-284 increased limitation on fines from $5,000    to $10,000 and provided for imprisonment for any term of years or    for life when death results.                      EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1996 AMENDMENT                       Amendment by section 604(b)(14)(A) of Pub. L. 104-294 effective    Sept. 13, 1994, see section 604(d) of Pub. L. 104-294, set out as a    note under section 13 of this title.                        SHORT TITLE OF 1996 AMENDMENT                         Pub. L. 104-155, Sec. 1, July 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 1392, provided    that: “This Act [amending section 247 of this title and section    10602 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, enacting    provisions set out as a note under section 247 of this title, and    amending provisions set out as a note under section 534 of Title    28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure] may be cited as the ‘Church    Arson Prevention Act of 1996′.” -End-   -CITE-    18 USC Sec. 242                                             01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE-    TITLE 18 – CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE    PART I – CRIMES    CHAPTER 13 – CIVIL RIGHTS -HEAD-    Sec. 242. Deprivation of rights under color of law -STATUTE-      Whoever, under color of any law, statute, ordinance, regulation,    or custom, willfully subjects any person in any State, Territory,    Commonwealth, Possession, or District to the deprivation of any    rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the    Constitution or laws of the United States, or to different    punishments, pains, or penalties, on account of such person being    an alien, or by reason of his color, or race, than are prescribed    for the punishment of citizens, shall be fined under this title or    imprisoned not more than one year, or both; and if bodily injury    results from the acts committed in violation of this section or if    such acts include the use, attempted use, or threatened use of a    dangerous weapon, explosives, or fire, shall be fined under this    title or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both; and if death    results from the acts committed in violation of this section or if    such acts include kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated    sexual abuse, or an attempt to commit aggravated sexual abuse, or    an attempt to kill, shall be fined under this title, or imprisoned    for any term of years or for life, or both, or may be sentenced to    death. -SOURCE-    (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 696; Pub. L. 90-284, title I,    Sec. 103(b), Apr. 11, 1968, 82 Stat. 75; Pub. L. 100-690, title    VII, Sec. 7019, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4396; Pub. L. 103-322,    title VI, Sec. 60006(b), title XXXII, Secs. 320103(b), 320201(b),    title XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(H), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1970,    2109, 2113, 2147; Pub. L. 104-294, title VI, Secs. 604(b)(14)(B),    607(a), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3507, 3511.)  -MISC1-                       HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES                         Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 52 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.    321, Sec. 20, 35 Stat. 1092).      Reference to persons causing or procuring was omitted as    unnecessary in view of definition of “principal” in section 2 of    this title.      A minor change was made in phraseology.                                 AMENDMENTS                                  1996 – Pub. L. 104-294, Sec. 607(a), substituted “any State,    Territory, Commonwealth, Possession, or District” for “any State,    Territory, or District”.      Pub. L. 104-294, Sec. 604(b)(14)(B), repealed Pub. L. 103-322,    Sec. 320103(b)(1). See 1994 Amendment note below.      1994 – Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330016(1)(H), substituted “shall be    fined under this title” for “shall be fined not more than $1,000″    after “citizens,”.      Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 320201(b), substituted “any person in any    State” for “any inhabitant of any State” and “on account of such    person” for “on account of such inhabitant”.      Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 320103(b)(2)-(5), substituted “bodily    injury results from the acts committed in violation of this section    or if such acts include the use, attempted use, or threatened use    of a dangerous weapon, explosives, or fire, shall be fined under    this title or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both; and if    death results from the acts committed in violation of this section    or if such acts include kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap,    aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to commit aggravated sexual    abuse, or an attempt to kill, shall be fined under this title, or    imprisoned for any term of years or for life, or both” for “bodily    injury results shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not    more than ten years, or both; and if death results shall be subject    to imprisonment for any term of years or for life”.      Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 320103(b)(1), which provided for amendment    identical to Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330016(1)(H), above, was    repealed by Pub. L. 104-294, Sec. 604(b)(14)(B).      Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 60006(b), inserted before period at end “,    or may be sentenced to death”.      1988 – Pub. L. 100-690 inserted “and if bodily injury results    shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten    years, or both;” after “or both;”.      1968 – Pub. L. 90-284 provided for imprisonment for any term of    years or for life when death results.                      EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1996 AMENDMENT                       Amendment by section 604(b)(14)(B) of Pub. L. 104-294 effective    Sept. 13, 1994, see section 604(d) of Pub. L. 104-294, set out as a    note under section 13 of this title. -End-   -CITE-    18 USC Sec. 243                                             01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE-    TITLE 18 – CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE    PART I – CRIMES    CHAPTER 13 – CIVIL RIGHTS -HEAD-    Sec. 243. Exclusion of jurors on account of race or color -STATUTE-      No citizen possessing all other qualifications which are or may    be prescribed by law shall be disqualified for service as grand or    petit juror in any court of the United States, or of any State on    account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude; and    whoever, being an officer or other person charged with any duty in    the selection or summoning of jurors, excludes or fails to summon    any citizen for such cause, shall be fined not more than $5,000. -SOURCE-    (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 696.)  -MISC1-                       HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES                         Based on section 44 of title 8, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Aliens and    Nationality (Mar. 1, 1875, ch. 114, Sec. 4, 18 Stat. 336).      Words “be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and” were deleted as    unnecessary in view of definition of misdemeanor in section 1 of    this title.      Words “on conviction thereof” were omitted as unnecessary, since    punishment follows only after conviction.      Minimum punishment provisions were omitted. (See reviser’s note    under section 203 of this title.)      Minor changes in phraseology were made. -End-   -CITE-    18 USC Sec. 244                                             01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE-    TITLE 18 – CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE    PART I – CRIMES    CHAPTER 13 – CIVIL RIGHTS -HEAD-    Sec. 244. Discrimination against person wearing uniform of armed      forces -STATUTE-      Whoever, being a proprietor, manager, or employee of a theater or    other public place of entertainment or amusement in the District of    Columbia, or in any Territory, or Possession of the United States,    causes any person wearing the uniform of any of the armed forces of    the United States to be discriminated against because of that    uniform, shall be fined under this title. -SOURCE-    (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 697; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, Sec.    5, 63 Stat. 90; Pub. L. 103-322, title XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(G),    Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)  -MISC1-                       HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES                                                     1948 ACT                                   Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Sec. 523 (Mar. 1, 1911, ch.    187, 36 Stat. 963; Aug. 24, 1912, ch. 387, Sec. 1, 37 Stat. 512;    Jan. 28, 1915, ch. 20, Sec. 1, 38 Stat. 800).      Words “guilty of a misdemeanor”, following “shall be”, were    omitted as unnecessary in view of definition of “misdemeanor” in    section 1 of this title. (See reviser’s note under section 212 of    this title.)      Changes were made in phraseology.                                  1949 ACT                                   This section [section 5] substitutes, in section 244 of title 18,    U.S.C., “any of the armed forces of the United States” for the    enumeration of specific branches and thereby includes the Air    Force, formerly part of the Army. This clarification is necessary    because of the establishment of the Air Force as a separate branch    of the Armed Forces by the act of July 26, 1947.                                 AMENDMENTS                                  1994 – Pub. L. 103-322 substituted “fined under this title” for    “fined not more than $500″.      1949 – Act May 24, 1949, substituted “any of the armed forces of    the United States” for enumeration of the specific branches. -End-   -CITE-    18 USC Sec. 245                                             01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE-    TITLE 18 – CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE    PART I – CRIMES    CHAPTER 13 – CIVIL RIGHTS -HEAD-    Sec. 245. Federally protected activities -STATUTE-      (a)(1) Nothing in this section shall be construed as indicating    an intent on the part of Congress to prevent any State, any    possession or Commonwealth of the United States, or the District of    Columbia, from exercising jurisdiction over any offense over which    it would have jurisdiction in the absence of this section, nor    shall anything in this section be construed as depriving State and    local law enforcement authorities of responsibility for prosecuting    acts that may be violations of this section and that are violations    of State and local law. No prosecution of any offense described in    this section shall be undertaken by the United States except upon    the certification in writing of the Attorney General, the Deputy    Attorney General, the Associate Attorney General, or any Assistant    Attorney General specially designated by the Attorney General that    in his judgment a prosecution by the United States is in the public    interest and necessary to secure substantial justice, which    function of certification may not be delegated.      (2) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to limit the    authority of Federal officers, or a Federal grand jury, to    investigate possible violations of this section.      (b) Whoever, whether or not acting under color of law, by force    or threat of force willfully injures, intimidates or interferes    with, or attempts to injure, intimidate or interfere with –         (1) any person because he is or has been, or in order to      intimidate such person or any other person or any class of      persons from –           (A) voting or qualifying to vote, qualifying or campaigning        as a candidate for elective office, or qualifying or acting as        a poll watcher, or any legally authorized election official, in        any primary, special, or general election;          (B) participating in or enjoying any benefit, service,        privilege, program, facility, or activity provided or        administered by the United States;          (C) applying for or enjoying employment, or any perquisite        thereof, by any agency of the United States;          (D) serving, or attending upon any court in connection with        possible service, as a grand or petit juror in any court of the        United States;          (E) participating in or enjoying the benefits of any program        or activity receiving Federal financial assistance; or         (2) any person because of his race, color, religion or national      origin and because he is or has been –           (A) enrolling in or attending any public school or public        college;          (B) participating in or enjoying any benefit, service,        privilege, program, facility or activity provided or        administered by any State or subdivision thereof;          (C) applying for or enjoying employment, or any perquisite        thereof, by any private employer or any agency of any State or        subdivision thereof, or joining or using the services or        advantages of any labor organization, hiring hall, or        employment agency;          (D) serving, or attending upon any court of any State in        connection with possible service, as a grand or petit juror;          (E) traveling in or using any facility of interstate        commerce, or using any vehicle, terminal, or facility of any        common carrier by motor, rail, water, or air;          (F) enjoying the goods, services, facilities, privileges,        advantages, or accommodations of any inn, hotel, motel, or        other establishment which provides lodging to transient guests,        or of any restaurant, cafeteria, lunchroom, lunch counter, soda        fountain, or other facility which serves the public and which        is principally engaged in selling food or beverages for        consumption on the premises, or of any gasoline station, or of        any motion picture house, theater, concert hall, sports arena,        stadium, or any other place of exhibition or entertainment        which serves the public, or of any other establishment which        serves the public and (i) which is located within the premises        of any of the aforesaid establishments or within the premises        of which is physically located any of the aforesaid        establishments, and (ii) which holds itself out as serving        patrons of such establishments; or         (3) during or incident to a riot or civil disorder, any person      engaged in a business in commerce or affecting commerce,      including, but not limited to, any person engaged in a business      which sells or offers for sale to interstate travelers a      substantial portion of the articles, commodities, or services      which it sells or where a substantial portion of the articles or      commodities which it sells or offers for sale have moved in      commerce; or        (4) any person because he is or has been, or in order to      intimidate such person or any other person or any class of      persons from –           (A) participating, without discrimination on account of race,        color, religion or national origin, in any of the benefits or        activities described in subparagraphs (1)(A) through (1)(E) or        subparagraphs (2)(A) through (2)(F); or          (B) affording another person or class of persons opportunity        or protection to so participate; or         (5) any citizen because he is or has been, or in order to      intimidate such citizen or any other citizen from lawfully aiding      or encouraging other persons to participate, without      discrimination on account of race, color, religion or national      origin, in any of the benefits or activities described in      subparagraphs (1)(A) through (1)(E) or subparagraphs (2)(A)      through (2)(F), or participating lawfully in speech or peaceful      assembly opposing any denial of the opportunity to so participate      –      shall be fined under this title, or imprisoned not more than one    year, or both; and if bodily injury results from the acts committed    in violation of this section or if such acts include the use,    attempted use, or threatened use of a dangerous weapon, explosives,    or fire shall be fined under this title, or imprisoned not more    than ten years, or both; and if death results from the acts    committed in violation of this section or if such acts include    kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse or an    attempt to commit aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill,    shall be fined under this title or imprisoned for any term of years    or for life, or both, or may be sentenced to death. As used in this    section, the term “participating lawfully in speech or peaceful    assembly” shall not mean the aiding, abetting, or inciting of other    persons to riot or to commit any act of physical violence upon any    individual or against any real or personal property in furtherance    of a riot. Nothing in subparagraph (2)(F) or (4)(A) of this    subsection shall apply to the proprietor of any establishment which    provides lodging to transient guests, or to any employee acting on    behalf of such proprietor, with respect to the enjoyment of the    goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, or    accommodations of such establishment if such establishment is    located within a building which contains not more than five rooms    for rent or hire and which is actually occupied by the proprietor    as his residence.      (c) Nothing in this section shall be construed so as to deter any    law enforcement officer from lawfully carrying out the duties of    his office; and no law enforcement officer shall be considered to    be in violation of this section for lawfully carrying out the    duties of his office or lawfully enforcing ordinances and laws of    the United States, the District of Columbia, any of the several    States, or any political subdivision of a State. For purposes of    the preceding sentence, the term “law enforcement officer” means    any officer of the United States, the District of Columbia, a    State, or political subdivision of a State, who is empowered by law    to conduct investigations of, or make arrests because of, offenses    against the United States, the District of Columbia, a State, or a    political subdivision of a State.      (d) For purposes of this section, the term “State” includes a    State of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any    commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States. -SOURCE-    (Added Pub. L. 90-284, title I, Sec. 101(a), Apr. 11, 1968, 82    Stat. 73; amended Pub. L. 100-690, title VII, Sec. 7020(a), Nov.    18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4396; Pub. L. 101-647, title XII, Sec. 1205(b),    Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4830; Pub. L. 103-322, title VI, Sec.    60006(c), title XXXII, Sec. 320103(c), title XXXIII, Sec.    330016(1)(H), (L), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1971, 2109, 2147; Pub.    L. 104-294, title VI, Sec. 604(b)(14)(C), (37), Oct. 11, 1996, 110    Stat. 3507, 3509.)  -MISC1-                                AMENDMENTS                                  1996 – Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104-294 amended Pub. L. 103-322, Sec.    320103(c). See 1994 Amendment notes below.      1994 – Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330016(1)(L),    substituted “shall be fined under this title” for “shall be fined    not more than $10,000″ before “, or imprisoned not more than ten    years” in concluding provisions.      Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330016(1)(H), substituted “shall be fined    under this title” for “shall be fined not more than $1,000″ before    “, or imprisoned not more than one year” in concluding provisions.      Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 320103(c)(4)-(6), in concluding provisions,    inserted “from the acts committed in violation of this section or    if such acts include kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated    sexual abuse or an attempt to commit aggravated sexual abuse, or an    attempt to kill,” after “death results” and substituted “shall be    fined under this title or imprisoned for any term of years or for    life, or both” for “shall be subject to imprisonment for any term    of years or for life”.      Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 320103(c)(3), which provided for amendment    identical to Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330016(1)(L), above, was    repealed by Pub. L. 104-294, Sec. 604(b)(14)(C).      Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 320103(c)(2), as amended by Pub. L. 104-    294, Sec. 604(b)(37), inserted “from the acts committed in    violation of this section or if such acts include the use,    attempted use, or threatened use of a dangerous weapon, explosives,    or fire” after “bodily injury results” in concluding provisions.      Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 320103(c)(1), which provided for amendment    identical to Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330016(1)(H), above, was    repealed by Pub. L. 104-294, Sec. 604(b)(14)(C).      Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 60006(c), in concluding provisions,    inserted “, or may be sentenced to death” before “. As used in this    section”.      1990 – Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101-647 added subsec. (d).      1988 – Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 100-690 substituted “, the Deputy”    for “or the Deputy” and inserted “, the Associate Attorney General,    or any Assistant Attorney General specially designated by the    Attorney General” after “Deputy Attorney General”.                      EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1996 AMENDMENT                       Amendment by Pub. L. 104-294 effective Sept. 13, 1994, see    section 604(d) of Pub. L. 104-294, set out as a note under section    13 of this title.                                FAIR HOUSING                                 Section 101(b) of Pub. L. 90-284 provided that: “Nothing    contained in this section [enacting this section] shall apply to or    affect activities under title VIII of this Act [sections 3601 to    3619 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare].”     RIOTS OR CIVIL DISTURBANCES, SUPPRESSION AND RESTORATION OF LAW AND      ORDER; ACTS OR OMISSIONS OF ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF               MILITARY SERVICE NOT SUBJECT TO THIS SECTION      Section 101(c) of Pub. L. 90-284 provided that: “The provisions    of this section [enacting this section] shall not apply to acts or    omissions on the part of law enforcement officers, members of the    National Guard, as defined in section 101(9) of title 10, United    States Code, members of the organized militia of any State or the    District of Columbia, not covered by such section 101(9), or    members of the Armed Forces of the United States, who are engaged    in suppressing a riot or civil disturbance or restoring law and    order during a riot or civil disturbance.” -End-   -CITE-    18 USC Sec. 246                                             01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE-    TITLE 18 – CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE    PART I – CRIMES    CHAPTER 13 – CIVIL RIGHTS -HEAD-    Sec. 246. Deprivation of relief benefits -STATUTE-      Whoever directly or indirectly deprives, attempts to deprive, or    threatens to deprive any person of any employment, position, work,    compensation, or other benefit provided for or made possible in    whole or in part by any Act of Congress appropriating funds for    work relief or relief purposes, on account of political    affiliation, race, color, sex, religion, or national origin, shall    be fined under this title, or imprisoned not more than one year, or    both. -SOURCE-    (Added Pub. L. 94-453, Sec. 4(a), Oct. 2, 1976, 90 Stat. 1517;    amended Pub. L. 103-322, title XXXIII, Sec. 330016(1)(L), Sept. 13,    1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)  -MISC1-                                AMENDMENTS                                  1994 – Pub. L. 103-322 substituted “fined under this title” for    “fined not more than $10,000″. -End-   -CITE-    18 USC Sec. 247                                             01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE-    TITLE 18 – CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE    PART I – CRIMES    CHAPTER 13 – CIVIL RIGHTS -HEAD-    Sec. 247. Damage to religious property; obstruction of persons in      the free exercise of religious beliefs -STATUTE-      (a) Whoever, in any of the circumstances referred to in    subsection (b) of this section –         (1) intentionally defaces, damages, or destroys any religious      real property, because of the religious character of that      property, or attempts to do so; or        (2) intentionally obstructs, by force or threat of force, any      person in the enjoyment of that person’s free exercise of      religious beliefs, or attempts to do so;     shall be punished as provided in subsection (d).      (b) The circumstances referred to in subsection (a) are that the    offense is in or affects interstate or foreign commerce.      (c) Whoever intentionally defaces, damages, or destroys any    religious real property because of the race, color, or ethnic    characteristics of any individual associated with that religious    property, or attempts to do so, shall be punished as provided in    subsection (d).      (d) The punishment for a violation of subsection (a) of this    section shall be –         (1) if death results from acts committed in violation of this      section or if such acts include kidnapping or an attempt to      kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse or an attempt to commit      aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill, a fine in      accordance with this title and imprisonment for any term of years      or for life, or both, or may be sentenced to death;        (2) if bodily injury results to any person, including any      public safety officer performing duties as a direct or proximate      result of conduct prohibited by this section, and the violation      is by means of fire or an explosive, a fine under this title or      imprisonment for not more that 40 years, or both;        (3) if bodily injury to any person, including any public safety      officer performing duties as a direct or proximate result of      conduct prohibited by this section, results from the acts      committed in violation of this section or if such acts include      the use, attempted use, or threatened use of a dangerous weapon,      explosives, or fire, a fine in accordance with this title and      imprisonment for not more than 20 years, or both; and        (4) in any other case, a fine in accordance with this title and      imprisonment for not more than one year, or both.       (e) No prosecution of any offense described in this section shall    be undertaken by the United States except upon the certification in    writing of the Attorney General or his designee that in his    judgment a prosecution by the United States is in the public    interest and necessary to secure substantial justice.      (f) As used in this section, the term “religious real property”    means any church, synagogue, mosque, religious cemetery, or other    religious real property, including fixtures or religious objects    contained within a place of religious worship.      (g) No person shall be prosecuted, tried, or punished for any    noncapital offense under this section unless the indictment is    found or the information is instituted not later than 7 years after    the date on which the offense was committed. -SOURCE-    (Added Pub. L. 100-346, Sec. 1, June 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 644;    amended Pub. L. 103-322, title VI, Sec. 60006(d), title XXXII, Sec.    320103(d), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1971, 2110; Pub. L. 104-155,    Sec. 3, July 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 1392; Pub. L. 104-294, title VI,    Secs. 601(c)(3), 605(r), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3499, 3511; Pub.    L. 107-273, div. B, title IV, Sec. 4002(c)(1), (e)(4), Nov. 2,    2002, 116 Stat. 1808, 1810.)  -MISC1-                                AMENDMENTS                                  2002 – Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107-273, Sec. 4002(c)(1), repealed    amendment by Pub. L. 107-273, Sec. 605(r). See 1996 Amendment note    below.      Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 107-273, Sec. 4002(e)(4), made technical    correction to directory language of Pub. L. 104-294, Sec.    601(c)(3). See 1996 Amendment note below.      1996 – Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104-155, Sec. 3(1), substituted    “subsection (d)” for “subsection (c) of this section” in concluding    provisions.      Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104-155, Sec. 3(3), added subsec. (b) and    struck out former subsec. (b) which read as follows: “The    circumstances referred to in subsection (a) are that –         “(1) in committing the offense, the defendant travels in      interstate or foreign commerce, or uses a facility or      instrumentality of interstate or foreign commerce in interstate      or foreign commerce; and        “(2) in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(1), the      loss resulting from the defacement, damage, or destruction is      more than $10,000.”      Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104-155, Sec. 3(2), added subsec. (c).    Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).      Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104-294, Sec. 605(r), which directed the    substitution of “certification” for “notification” in subsec. (d),    was repealed by Pub. L. 107-273, Sec. 4002(c)(1).      Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104-155, Sec. 3(2), redesignated subsec. (c)    as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (e).      Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 104-155, Sec. 3(4)(C), added par. (2).    Former par. (2) redesignated (3).      Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 104-155, Sec. 3(4)(A), (B), redesignated    par. (2) as (3), inserted “to any person, including any public    safety officer performing duties as a direct or proximate result of    conduct prohibited by this section,” after “bodily injury” and    substituted “20 years” for “ten years”. Former par. (3)    redesignated (4).      Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 104-155, Sec. 3(4)(B), redesignated par.    (3) as (4).      Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104-294, Sec. 601(c)(3), as amended by Pub.    L. 107-273, Sec. 4002(e)(4), substituted “certification” for    “notification”.      Pub. L. 104-155, Sec. 3(2), redesignated subsec. (d) as (e).    Former subsec. (e) redesignated (f).      Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104-155, Sec. 3(2), (5), redesignated    subsec. (e) as (f), inserted “, including fixtures or religious    objects contained within a place of religious worship” before the    period, and substituted “religious real property” for “religious    property” in two places.      Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 104-155, Sec. 3(6), added subsec. (g).      1994 – Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 320103(d)(1),    inserted “from acts committed in violation of this section or if    such acts include kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated    sexual abuse or an attempt to commit aggravated sexual abuse, or an    attempt to kill” after “death results”.      Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 60006(d), inserted “, or may be sentenced    to death” after “or both”.      Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 320103(d)(2), struck out    “serious” before “bodily” and inserted “from the acts committed in    violation of this section or if such acts include the use,    attempted use, or threatened use of a dangerous weapon, explosives,    or fire” after “injury results”.      Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 320103(d)(3), amended subsec.    (e) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (e) read as follows: “As    used in this section –         “(1) the term ‘religious real property’ means any church,      synagogue, mosque, religious cemetery, or other religious real      property; and        “(2) the term ‘serious bodily injury’ means bodily injury that      involves a substantial risk of death, unconsciousness, extreme      physical pain, protracted and obvious disfigurement, or      protracted loss or impairment of the function of a bodily member,      organ, or mental faculty.”                      EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2002 AMENDMENT                       Pub. L. 107-273, div. B, title IV, Sec. 4002(c)(1), Nov. 2, 2002,    116 Stat. 1808, provided that the amendment made by section    4002(c)(1) is effective Oct. 11, 1996.      Pub. L. 107-273, div. B, title IV, Sec. 4002(e)(4), Nov. 2, 2002,    116 Stat. 1810, provided that the amendment made by section    4002(e)(4) is effective Oct. 11, 1996.                           CONGRESSIONAL FINDINGS                            Section 2 of Pub. L. 104-155 provided that: “The Congress finds    the following:        “(1) The incidence of arson or other destruction or vandalism      of places of religious worship, and the incidence of violent      interference with an individual’s lawful exercise or attempted      exercise of the right of religious freedom at a place of      religious worship pose a serious national problem.        “(2) The incidence of arson of places of religious worship has      recently increased, especially in the context of places of      religious worship that serve predominantly African-American      congregations.        “(3) Changes in Federal law are necessary to deal properly with      this problem.        “(4) Although local jurisdictions have attempted to respond to      the challenges posed by such acts of destruction or damage to      religious property, the problem is sufficiently serious,      widespread, and interstate in scope to warrant Federal      intervention to assist State and local jurisdictions.        “(5) Congress has authority, pursuant to the Commerce Clause of      the Constitution, to make acts of destruction or damage to      religious property a violation of Federal law.        “(6) Congress has authority, pursuant to section 2 of the 13th      amendment to the Constitution, to make actions of private      citizens motivated by race, color, or ethnicity that interfere      with the ability of citizens to hold or use religious property      without fear of attack, violations of Federal criminal law.” -End-   -CITE-    18 USC Sec. 248                                             01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE-    TITLE 18 – CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE    PART I – CRIMES    CHAPTER 13 – CIVIL RIGHTS -HEAD-    Sec. 248. Freedom of access to clinic entrances -STATUTE-      (a) Prohibited Activities. – Whoever –         (1) by force or threat of force or by physical obstruction,      intentionally injures, intimidates or interferes with or attempts      to injure, intimidate or interfere with any person because that      person is or has been, or in order to intimidate such person or      any other person or any class of persons from, obtaining or      providing reproductive health services;        (2) by force or threat of force or by physical obstruction,      intentionally injures, intimidates or interferes with or attempts      to injure, intimidate or interfere with any person lawfully      exercising or seeking to exercise the First Amendment right of      religious freedom at a place of religious worship; or        (3) intentionally damages or destroys the property of a      facility, or attempts to do so, because such facility provides      reproductive health services, or intentionally damages or      destroys the property of a place of religious worship,     shall be subject to the penalties provided in subsection (b) and    the civil remedies provided in subsection (c), except that a parent    or legal guardian of a minor shall not be subject to any penalties    or civil remedies under this section for such activities insofar as    they are directed exclusively at that minor.      (b) Penalties. – Whoever violates this section shall –         (1) in the case of a first offense, be fined in accordance with      this title, or imprisoned not more than one year, or both; and        (2) in the case of a second or subsequent offense after a prior      conviction under this section, be fined in accordance with this      title, or imprisoned not more than 3 years, or both;     except that for an offense involving exclusively a nonviolent    physical obstruction, the fine shall be not more than $10,000 and    the length of imprisonment shall be not more than six months, or    both, for the first offense; and the fine shall, notwithstanding    section 3571, be not more than $25,000 and the length of    imprisonment shall be not more than 18 months, or both, for a    subsequent offense; and except that if bodily injury results, the    length of imprisonment shall be not more than 10 years, and if    death results, it shall be for any term of years or for life.      (c) Civil Remedies. –         (1) Right of action. –           (A) In general. – Any person aggrieved by reason of the        conduct prohibited by subsection (a) may commence a civil        action for the relief set forth in subparagraph (B), except        that such an action may be brought under subsection (a)(1) only        by a person involved in providing or seeking to provide, or        obtaining or seeking to obtain, services in a facility that        provides reproductive health services, and such an action may        be brought under subsection (a)(2) only by a person lawfully        exercising or seeking to exercise the First Amendment right of        religious freedom at a place of religious worship or by the        entity that owns or operates such place of religious worship.          (B) Relief. – In any action under subparagraph (A), the court        may award appropriate relief, including temporary, preliminary        or permanent injunctive relief and compensatory and punitive        damages, as well as the costs of suit and reasonable fees for        attorneys and expert witnesses. With respect to compensatory        damages, the plaintiff may elect, at any time prior to the        rendering of final judgment, to recover, in lieu of actual        damages, an award of statutory damages in the amount of $5,000        per violation.         (2) Action by attorney general of the united states. –           (A) In general. – If the Attorney General of the United        States has reasonable cause to believe that any person or group        of persons is being, has been, or may be injured by conduct        constituting a violation of this section, the Attorney General        may commence a civil action in any appropriate United States        District Court.          (B) Relief. – In any action under subparagraph (A), the court        may award appropriate relief, including temporary, preliminary        or permanent injunctive relief, and compensatory damages to        persons aggrieved as described in paragraph (1)(B). The court,        to vindicate the public interest, may also assess a civil        penalty against each respondent –             (i) in an amount not exceeding $10,000 for a nonviolent          physical obstruction and $15,000 for other first violations;          and            (ii) in an amount not exceeding $15,000 for a nonviolent          physical obstruction and $25,000 for any other subsequent          violation.         (3) Actions by state attorneys general. –           (A) In general. – If the Attorney General of a State has        reasonable cause to believe that any person or group of persons        is being, has been, or may be injured by conduct constituting a        violation of this section, such Attorney General may commence a        civil action in the name of such State, as parens patriae on        behalf of natural persons residing in such State, in any        appropriate United States District Court.          (B) Relief. – In any action under subparagraph (A), the court        may award appropriate relief, including temporary, preliminary        or permanent injunctive relief, compensatory damages, and civil        penalties as described in paragraph (2)(B).       (d) Rules of Construction. – Nothing in this section shall be    construed –         (1) to prohibit any expressive conduct (including peaceful      picketing or other peaceful demonstration) protected from legal      prohibition by the First Amendment to the Constitution;        (2) to create new remedies for interference with activities      protected by the free speech or free exercise clauses of the      First Amendment to the Constitution, occurring outside a      facility, regardless of the point of view expressed, or to limit      any existing legal remedies for such interference;        (3) to provide exclusive criminal penalties or civil remedies      with respect to the conduct prohibited by this section, or to      preempt State or local laws that may provide such penalties or      remedies; or        (4) to interfere with the enforcement of State or local laws      regulating the performance of abortions or other reproductive      health services.       (e) Definitions. – As used in this section:        (1) Facility. – The term “facility” includes a hospital,      clinic, physician’s office, or other facility that provides      reproductive health services, and includes the building or      structure in which the facility is located.        (2) Interfere with. – The term “interfere with” means to      restrict a person’s freedom of movement.        (3) Intimidate. – The term “intimidate” means to place a person      in reasonable apprehension of bodily harm to him- or herself or      to another.        (4) Physical obstruction. – The term “physical obstruction”      means rendering impassable ingress to or egress from a facility      that provides reproductive health services or to or from a place      of religious worship, or rendering passage to or from such a      facility or place of religious worship unreasonably difficult or      hazardous.        (5) Reproductive health services. – The term “reproductive      health services” means reproductive health services provided in a      hospital, clinic, physician’s office, or other facility, and      includes medical, surgical, counselling or referral services      relating to the human reproductive system, including services      relating to pregnancy or the termination of a pregnancy.        (6) State. – The term “State” includes a State of the United      States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth,      territory, or possession of the United States. -SOURCE-    (Added Pub. L. 103-259, Sec. 3, May 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 694;    amended Pub. L. 103-322, title XXXIII, Sec. 330023(a)(2), (3),    Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2150.)  -MISC1-                                AMENDMENTS                                  1994 – Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330023(a)(2), amended section    catchline generally. Prior to amendment, catchline read as follows:    “Sec. 248 Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances.”      Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330023(a)(3), in concluding    provisions, inserted “, notwithstanding section 3571,” before “be    not more than $25,000″.                      EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1994 AMENDMENT                       Section 330023(b) of Pub. L. 103-322 provided that: “The    amendments made by this subsection (a) [amending this section]    shall take effect on the date of enactment of the Freedom of Access    to Clinic Entrances Act of 1994 [May 26, 1994].”                               EFFECTIVE DATE                                Section 6 of Pub. L. 103-259 provided that: “This Act [see Short    Title note below] takes effect on the date of the enactment of this    Act [May 26, 1994], and shall apply only with respect to conduct    occurring on or after such date.”                                 SHORT TITLE                                  Section 1 of Pub. L. 103-259 provided that: “This Act [enacting    this section and provisions set out as notes under this section]    may be cited as the ‘Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act of    1994′.”                         SEVERABILITY OF PROVISIONS                          Section 5 of Pub. L. 103-259 provided that: “If any provision of    this Act [see Short Title note above], an amendment made by this    Act, or the application of such provision or amendment to any    person or circumstance is held to be unconstitutional, the    remainder of this Act, the amendments made by this Act, and the    application of the provisions of such to any other person or    circumstance shall not be affected thereby.”                     CONGRESSIONAL STATEMENT OF PURPOSE                      Section 2 of Pub. L. 103-259 provided that: “Pursuant to the    affirmative power of Congress to enact this legislation under    section 8 of article I of the Constitution, as well as under    section 5 of the fourteenth amendment to the Constitution, it is    the purpose of this Act [see Short Title note above] to protect and    promote the public safety and health and activities affecting    interstate commerce by establishing Federal criminal penalties and    civil remedies for certain violent, threatening, obstructive and    destructive conduct that is intended to injure, intimidate or    interfere with persons seeking to obtain or provide reproductive    health services.” -End-   -CITE-    18 USC Sec. 249                                             01/03/2012 (112-90) -EXPCITE-    TITLE 18 – CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE    PART I – CRIMES    CHAPTER 13 – CIVIL RIGHTS -HEAD-    Sec. 249. Hate crime acts -STATUTE-      (a) In General. –         (1) Offenses involving actual or perceived race, color,      religion, or national origin. – Whoever, whether or not acting      under color of law, willfully causes bodily injury to any person      or, through the use of fire, a firearm, a dangerous weapon, or an      explosive or incendiary device, attempts to cause bodily injury      to any person, because of the actual or perceived race, color,      religion, or national origin of any person –           (A) shall be imprisoned not more than 10 years, fined in        accordance with this title, or both; and          (B) shall be imprisoned for any term of years or for life,        fined in accordance with this title, or both, if –             (i) death results from the offense; or            (ii) the offense includes kidnapping or an attempt to          kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse or an attempt to commit          aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill.         (2) Offenses involving actual or perceived religion, national      origin, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or      disability. –           (A) In general. – Whoever, whether or not acting under color        of law, in any circumstance described in subparagraph (B) or        paragraph (3), willfully causes bodily injury to any person or,        through the use of fire, a firearm, a dangerous weapon, or an        explosive or incendiary device, attempts to cause bodily injury        to any person, because of the actual or perceived religion,        national origin, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity,        or disability of any person –             (i) shall be imprisoned not more than 10 years, fined in          accordance with this title, or both; and            (ii) shall be imprisoned for any term of years or for life,          fined in accordance with this title, or both, if –               (I) death results from the offense; or              (II) the offense includes kidnapping or an attempt to            kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse or an attempt to commit            aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill.           (B) Circumstances described. – For purposes of subparagraph        (A), the circumstances described in this subparagraph are that –                     (i) the conduct described in subparagraph (A) occurs during          the course of, or as the result of, the travel of the          defendant or the victim –               (I) across a State line or national border; or              (II) using a channel, facility, or instrumentality of            interstate or foreign commerce;             (ii) the defendant uses a channel, facility, or          instrumentality of interstate or foreign commerce in          connection with the conduct described in subparagraph (A);            (iii) in connection with the conduct described in          subparagraph (A), the defendant employs a firearm, dangerous          weapon, explosive or incendiary device, or other weapon that          has traveled in interstate or foreign commerce; or            (iv) the conduct described in subparagraph (A) –               (I) interferes with commercial or other economic activity            in which the victim is engaged at the time of the conduct;            or              (II) otherwise affects interstate or foreign commerce.         (3) Offenses occurring in the special maritime or territorial      jurisdiction of the united states. – Whoever, within the special      maritime or territorial jurisdiction of the United States,      engages in conduct described in paragraph (1) or in paragraph      (2)(A) (without regard to whether that conduct occurred in a      circumstance described in paragraph (2)(B)) shall be subject to      the same penalties as prescribed in those paragraphs.        (4) Guidelines. – All prosecutions conducted by the United      States under this section shall be undertaken pursuant to      guidelines issued by the Attorney General, or the designee of the      Attorney General, to be included in the United States Attorneys’      Manual that shall establish neutral and objective criteria for      determining whether a crime was committed because of the actual      or perceived status of any person.       (b) Certification Requirement. –         (1) In general. – No prosecution of any offense described in      this subsection may be undertaken by the United States, except      under the certification in writing of the Attorney General, or a      designee, that –           (A) the State does not have jurisdiction;          (B) the State has requested that the Federal Government        assume jurisdiction;          (C) the verdict or sentence obtained pursuant to State        charges left demonstratively unvindicated the Federal interest        in eradicating bias-motivated violence; or          (D) a prosecution by the United States is in the public        interest and necessary to secure substantial justice.         (2) Rule of construction. – Nothing in this subsection shall be      construed to limit the authority of Federal officers, or a      Federal grand jury, to investigate possible violations of this      section.       (c) Definitions. – In this section –         (1) the term “bodily injury” has the meaning given such term in      section 1365(h)(4) of this title, but does not include solely      emotional or psychological harm to the victim;        (2) the term “explosive or incendiary device” has the meaning      given such term in section 232 of this title;        (3) the term “firearm” has the meaning given such term in      section 921(a) of this title;        (4) the term “gender identity” means actual or perceived gender-      related characteristics; and        (5) the term “State” includes the District of Columbia, Puerto      Rico, and any other territory or possession of the United States.       (d) Statute of Limitations. –         (1) Offenses not resulting in death. – Except as provided in      paragraph (2), no person shall be prosecuted, tried, or punished      for any offense under this section unless the indictment for such      offense is found, or the information for such offense is      instituted, not later than 7 years after the date on which the      offense was committed.        (2) Death resulting offenses. – An indictment or information      alleging that an offense under this section resulted in death may      be found or instituted at any time without limitation. -SOURCE-    (Added and amended Pub. L. 111-84, div. E, Secs. 4707(a), 4711,    Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2838, 2842.)  -MISC1-                                AMENDMENTS                                  2009 – Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 111-84, Sec. 4711, added par. (4).                                SEVERABILITY                                 Pub. L. 111-84, div. E, Sec. 4709, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2841,    provided that: “If any provision of this division [enacting this    section and section 1389 of this title and sections 3716 and 3716a    of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending this section,    enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section    3716 of Title 42, and amending provisions set out as a note under    section 534 and provisions listed in a table relating to sentencing    guidelines set out under section 994 of Title 28, Judiciary and    Judicial Procedure], an amendment made by this division, or the    application of such provision or amendment to any person or    circumstance is held to be unconstitutional, the remainder of this    division, the amendments made by this division, and the application    of the provisions of such to any person or circumstance shall not    be affected thereby.”                            RULE OF CONSTRUCTION                             Pub. L. 111-84, div. E, Sec. 4710, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2841,    provided that: “For purposes of construing this division [see    Severability note above] and the amendments made by this division    the following shall apply:        “(1) In general. – Nothing in this division shall be construed      to allow a court, in any criminal trial for an offense described      under this division or an amendment made by this division, in the      absence of a stipulation by the parties, to admit evidence of      speech, beliefs, association, group membership, or expressive      conduct unless that evidence is relevant and admissible under the      Federal Rules of Evidence. Nothing in this division is intended      to affect the existing rules of evidence.        “(2) Violent acts. – This division applies to violent acts      motivated by actual or perceived race, color, religion, national      origin, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or      disability of a victim.        “(3) Construction and application. – Nothing in this division,      or an amendment made by this division, shall be construed or      applied in a manner that infringes any rights under the first      amendment to the Constitution of the United States. Nor shall      anything in this division, or an amendment made by this division,      be construed or applied in a manner that substantially burdens a      person’s exercise of religion (regardless of whether compelled      by, or central to, a system of religious belief), speech,      expression, or association, unless the Government demonstrates      that application of the burden to the person is in furtherance of      a compelling governmental interest and is the least restrictive      means of furthering that compelling governmental interest, if      such exercise of religion, speech, expression, or association was      not intended to –           “(A) plan or prepare for an act of physical violence; or          “(B) incite an imminent act of physical violence against        another.        “(4) Free expression. – Nothing in this division shall be      construed to allow prosecution based solely upon an individual’s      expression of racial, religious, political, or other beliefs or      solely upon an individual’s membership in a group advocating or      espousing such beliefs.        “(5) First amendment. – Nothing in this division, or an      amendment made by this division, shall be construed to diminish      any rights under the first amendment to the Constitution of the      United States.        “(6) Constitutional protections. – Nothing in this division      shall be construed to prohibit any constitutionally protected      speech, expressive conduct or activities (regardless of whether      compelled by, or central to, a system of religious belief),      including the exercise of religion protected by the first      amendment to the Constitution of the United States and peaceful      picketing or demonstration. The Constitution of the United States      does not protect speech, conduct or activities consisting of      planning for, conspiring to commit, or committing an act of      violence.”                                  FINDINGS                                   Pub. L. 111-84, div. E, Sec. 4702, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2835,    provided that: “Congress makes the following findings:        “(1) The incidence of violence motivated by the actual or      perceived race, color, religion, national origin, gender, sexual      orientation, gender identity, or disability of the victim poses a      serious national problem.        “(2) Such violence disrupts the tranquility and safety of      communities and is deeply divisive.        “(3) State and local authorities are now and will continue to      be responsible for prosecuting the overwhelming majority of      violent crimes in the United States, including violent crimes      motivated by bias. These authorities can carry out their      responsibilities more effectively with greater Federal      assistance.        “(4) Existing Federal law is inadequate to address this      problem.        “(5) A prominent characteristic of a violent crime motivated by      bias is that it devastates not just the actual victim and the      family and friends of the victim, but frequently savages the      community sharing the traits that caused the victim to be      selected.        “(6) Such violence substantially affects interstate commerce in      many ways, including the following:          “(A) The movement of members of targeted groups is impeded,        and members of such groups are forced to move across State        lines to escape the incidence or risk of such violence.          “(B) Members of targeted groups are prevented from purchasing        goods and services, obtaining or sustaining employment, or        participating in other commercial activity.          “(C) Perpetrators cross State lines to commit such violence.          “(D) Channels, facilities, and instrumentalities of        interstate commerce are used to facilitate the commission of        such violence.          “(E) Such violence is committed using articles that have        traveled in interstate commerce.        “(7) For generations, the institutions of slavery and      involuntary servitude were defined by the race, color, and      ancestry of those held in bondage. Slavery and involuntary      servitude were enforced, both prior to and after the adoption of      the 13th amendment to the Constitution of the United States,      through widespread public and private violence directed at      persons because of their race, color, or ancestry, or perceived      race, color, or ancestry. Accordingly, eliminating racially      motivated violence is an important means of eliminating, to the      extent possible, the badges, incidents, and relics of slavery and      involuntary servitude.        “(8) Both at the time when the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments      to the Constitution of the United States were adopted, and      continuing to date, members of certain religious and national      origin groups were and are perceived to be distinct ‘races’.      Thus, in order to eliminate, to the extent possible, the badges,      incidents, and relics of slavery, it is necessary to prohibit      assaults on the basis of real or perceived religions or national      origins, at least to the extent such religions or national      origins were regarded as races at the time of the adoption of the      13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the Constitution of the United      States.        “(9) Federal jurisdiction over certain violent crimes motivated      by bias enables Federal, State, and local authorities to work      together as partners in the investigation and prosecution of such      crimes.        “(10) The problem of crimes motivated by bias is sufficiently      serious, widespread, and interstate in nature as to warrant      Federal assistance to States, local jurisdictions, and Indian      tribes.”      [For definitions of “State” and “local” used in section 4702 of    Pub. L. 111-84, set out above, see section 4703(b) of Pub. L. 111-    84, set out as a note under section 3716 of Title 42, The Public    Health and Welfare.] -End-